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The kings of Commagene claimed descent from the Orontid Dynasty and would therefore have been related to the family that founded the Kingdom of Armenia; the accuracy of these claims, however, is uncertain.At Antiochus Theos' sanctuary at Mount Nemrut, the king erected monumental statues of deities with mixed Greek and Iranian names, such as Zeus-Oromasdes, while celebrating his own descent from the royal families of Persia and Armenia in a Greek-language inscription.It reemerged as an independent kingdom when Antiochus IV of Commagene was reinstated to the throne by order of Caligula, then deprived of it by that same emperor, then restored to it a couple of years later by his successor, Claudius.The re-emergent state lasted until 72 AD, when the Emperor Vespasian finally and definitively made it part of the Roman Empire.
Little is known of the region of Commagene prior to the beginning of the 2nd century BC.
As a testament to the descendants of Antiochus IV, the citizens of Athens erected a funeral monument in honor of his grandson Philopappos, who was a benefactor of the city, upon his death in 116.
Another descendant of Antiochus IV was the historian Gaius Asinius Quadratus, who lived in the 3rd century.
Thanks to his diplomatic skills, Antiochus was able to keep Commagene independent from the Romans.
In 17 when Antiochus III of Commagene died, Emperor Tiberius annexed Commagene to the province of Syria.